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What The Bible Really Teaches About Hell
#1
What The Bible Really Teaches About Hell


The English Word Hell



The old English word hell comes from helan, and means to cover or conceal. Similar words coming from the same root have a similar meaning.

Hill for example is a mound of dirt or stone that covers the level surface of earth. Hull is the covering of a nut or the covered part of a ship. Heal is the covering of a wound. Hall is a building space which is used to cover people or goods. Hole is an uncovering. Shell.

In the early days to hell potatoes meant to cover them, as to store them in a cellar or underground. To hel a house meant to cover a portion of it with tile. The term heling a house is still used in the New England portions of the United States.

At first the use of hell had no pagan meaning to it. It was simply used as the common grave of man. To go to hell in the old English language meant simply that one was dead and buried. It was in Germany and England that the word began to evolve into the pagan unscriptural meaning of eternal punishment.



Poor Translation



The original meaning of the word hell is not so much a poor translation of the Hebrew sheohl (English Transliteration sheol) and the Greek Haides (English transliteration hades), however, as the word has evolved into a pagan meaning the modern day translation of hell is misleading.

The Catholic Douay Version translates sheohl as hell 64 times and once as death. The King James Version translates sheohl 31 times as hell, 31 times as grave and 3 times as pit.

This is common in older translations as well, such as is used by the English Revised Version (1885) where sheohl is transliterated in many cases but most of the occurrences were translated as grave, or pit. Hell being used 14 times. The American Standard Version (1901) transliterated sheohl in all 65 occurrences and haides in all ten of its occurrences, though the Greek word Geenna (English Gehenna) is translated hell.



The Hebrew Sheohl



The Hebrew word sheohl is the unseen resting place of the dead. It is not to be mistaken for the Hebrew words for individual burial place ( qever - Judges 16:31 ), grave ( qevurah - Genesis 35:20 ), or individual tomb ( gadhish - Job 21:32 ) but rather the common grave of all mankind whatever the form of burial might be.

The Greek teaching of the immortality of the human soul and hell began to infiltrate Jewish teachings probably around the time of Alexander The Great. The Bible itself, however, is in stark contrast to the teachings of pagan origin regarding the soul, which is not immortal ( Ezekiel 18:4 ) and therefore can't suffer forever in hell. The Bible also teaches that there is no consciousness in hell. ( Ecclesiastes 9:4-10 ).

Sheol corresponds with the Greek Haides, both being the unseen resting place of the dead. It is not a place of fire, but of darkness ( Job 10:21 ) a place of silence ( Psalm 115:17 ) rather than a place filled with tortured screams.



The Greek Haides



The Greek word Haides corresponds to the Hebrew Sheohl as is indicated by the apostle Peter's reference to Psalm 16:10 at Acts 2:27-31 where Jesus had fulfilled David's prophecy that Jesus would not be left in hell. Likewise Jesus himself said that like Jonah, he would spend three days in hell. ( Jonah 1:17 - Jonah 2:2 / Matthew 12:40 )

The Greek word Haides occurs 10 times in the Christian Greek scriptures. ( Matthew 11:23 / Matthew 16:18 / Luke 10:15 / Luke 16:23 / Acts 2:27 / Acts 2:31 / Revelation 1:18 / Revelation 6:8 / Revelation 20:13 / Revelation 20:14 ).

It means the unseen place. In ten of the occurrences of haides it is in reference to death. It is not to be confused with the Greek word for grave ( taphos ), tomb ( mnema ) or memorial tomb ( mnemeion ), but is rather the common resting place of the dead. The place of death.

Jesus also uses haides at Matthew 11:23 and Luke 10:15 in a figurative way to indicate the debasement of Capernaum compared to heaven.

Also see The Rich Man And Lazarus below.



The Greek Gehenna



Unlike the Hebrew sheohl and the Greek haides, there is really no excuse for mistaking the Greek Geenna (Hebrew Geh Hinnom - English Transliteration Gehenna) with the notion of any hell, either the old English word meaning covered or the pagan hell of today's Christianity.

The Christian Greek Gehenna is a literal place - a valley that lies South and South-West of ancient Jerusalem. It is the modern day Wadi er-Rababi ( Ge Ben Hinnom ), a deep, narrow valley.

Today it is a peaceful and pleasant valley, unlike the surrounding dry and rocky terrain, and most certainly unlike the pagan / apostate Christian hell.

In the days of unfaithful Kings Manasseh and Ahaz idolatrous worship of the pagan god Baal was conducted in the place which was then known as Geh Hinnom, ( the valley of Hinnom ) including human sacrifices to fire. It is ironic that the pagan custom burning in fire would have so clearly infiltrated the Christian teachings, considering that this practice was a detestable thing to Jehovah God, and his prophets spoke of a time when this place would be turned into a defiled and desolate place. ( 2 Chronicles 28:1-3 / 2 Chronicles 33:1-6 / Jeremiah 7:31-32 / Jeremiah 32:35 ).

The prophecy was fulfilled in the days of faithful King Josiah, who had the place, especially the area known as Topeth polluted into a refuse heap. ( 2 Kings 23:10 )

So it was that in the days of Jesus and the early Christian congregations, that the valley was known as a literal place where the carcasses of criminals and animals were thrown, having no hope for resurrection. The refuse there was kept burning with sulphur, which is abundant in the area. When Jesus used Gehenna as a figurative - a symbolic reference to the spiritually dead the people in the area knew what he was talking about.



The Greek Tartarus



The Greek word Tartarus is found only once in scripture, at 2 Peter 2:4. It is often mistranslated as hell. Tartarus in the Christian Greek scriptures refers to a condition of debasement, unlike the pre-Christian pagan tartarus ( Homer's Iliad ) which is a mythological prison.

Peter refers to the angels who in the time of Noah foresook thier original positions and became men in order to have relations with the women of earth. The result was their offspring being giants, the Nephilim, who caused so much trouble God had to bring forth the flood. ( Genesis 6:1-4 / Ephesians 6:10-12 / Jude 1:6 ).

It is interesting that this verse is often mistranslated because when Jesus was resurrected from Sheol / Hades ( Hell in some translations ) on earth, he first went to tartarus - that is to say the disobedient angels whom had been lowered in position - who happened to be in heaven. This means that if you don't understand the mistranslation you would see Jesus go to hell on earth and then hell in heaven.



The Pagan Hell



The Pagan teaching of hell was adopted by the apostate Christian church. Today's thinking of hell comes more from Dante's Divine Comedy and Milton's Paradise Lost, but the teaching of hellfire is much older than the English word hell or Dante and Milton. It comes from Babylonian and Assyrian beliefs of a nether world. A place where gods and demons of great strength and fierceness presided over the damned.

Ancient Egyptian beliefs considered the Other World to be a place of pits of fire for the damned though they didn't think this lasted forever.
Islamic teaching considers hell as a place of everlasting punishment. Hindus and Buddhists think of hell as a place of spiritual cleansing and final restoration.



Separation From God



Hell ( as is often translated from the Hebrew Sheohl ) can't be a separation from God, since God is in effect there - it is in front of him. He watches sheol for the time when the dead shall be resurrected. ( Proverbs 15:11 / Psalm 139:7-8 / Amos 9:1-2 )



Lazarus And The Rich Man - Luke 16:19-31



Jesus often taught people in a way which was easy for them to grasp. One way of doing this is through parables, or illustration. They are stories, which are not meant to be taken as literal accounts. Such is the case with the story of Lazarus and the Rich Man. Notice that the Rich man is buried in hades. If this account is to be taken literally then the Bible would contradict itself with all of the information being given in this post, but lets not leave it up to what may be thought to be my own personal interpretation.

Let it also be known that if this account is to be taken literally then that would make Jesus a liar. How so? How could Lazarus be at the bosom of Abraham in heaven when Jesus had already said that no man had ascended to heaven other than himself? ( John 3:13 )



The Lake Of Fire



The lake of fire is sometimes referred to as hell. This isn't even worth mentioning in my opinion because the lake of fire is obviously a symbolic reference to everlasting destruction. Since hell itself is cast into the lake of fire along with death and Satan, all of this ties up rather nicely in that Adam's sin brought death. Had Adam not sinned therefore he wouldn't have died. Jesus takes away sin so the meek shall inherit the earth and live forever upon it. Death will be no more. Sin will be no more. Hell ( the common grave of mankind ) will be no more and Satan will be no more.



Reference



"Sheol was located somewhere 'under' the earth . . . . The state of the dead was one of neither pain nor pleasure. Neither reward for the righteous nor punishment for the wicked was associated with Sheol. The good and bad alike, tyrants and saints, kings and orphans, Israelites and gentiles - all slept together without awareness of one another." - Encyclpædia Britannica (1971, Vol. 11, p. 276)

"Hades . . . it corresponds to 'Sheol' in the O.T. and N.T., it has been unhappily rendered 'hell' " - Vine's Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words (1981, Vol. 2 p. 187)

"First it (Hell) stands for the Hebrew Sheohl of the Old Testament and the Greek Hades of the Septuagint and New Testament . Since Sheohl in Old Testament times referred simply to the abode of the dead and suggested no moral distinctions, the word 'hell,' as understood today, is not a happy translation." - Collier's Encyclopedia (1986, Vol. 12, p. 28)

"Much Confusion and misunderstanding has been caused through the early translators of the Bible persistently rendering the Hebrew Sheohl and the Greek Hades and Gehenna by the word hell. The simple transliteration of these words by the translators of the revised editions of the Bible has not sufficed to appreciably clear up this confusion and misconception." - The Encyclopedia Americana (1956, Vol. XIV, p. 81)

"The word ( sheol ) occurs often in the Psalms and in the book of Job to refer to the place to which all dead people go. It is represented as a dark place, in which there is no activity worthy of the name. There are no moral distinction there, so 'hell' ( KJV ) is not a suitable translation, since that suggests a contrast with 'heaven' as the dwelling-place of the righteous after death. In a sense, 'the grave' in a generic sense is a near equivalent, except that Sheol is more a mass grave in which all the dead dwell together . . . . The use of this particular imagery may have been considered suitable here [ in Jonah 2:2 ] in view of Jonah's imprisonment in the interior of the fish." - A Translators Handbook on the Book of Jonah, Brynmor F. Price and Eugene A. Nida, 1978, p 37
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#2
RE: What The Bible Really Teaches About Hell
Good post, Daystar- well-developed and researched. I think you might do with an intro paragraph and a conclusion to summarize though, since this is basically an essay.

I really like your point about the Valley of Hinnon, and how it was just a symbol for the people of that time that really captures the idea of a truly horrible place. But that leaves me wondering, if the original biblical word was simply “sheol,” and meaning more or less a gathering place for the dead (forgive me for the comparison, but I cannot help remembering in the book “The Amber Spyglass” they spend a good amount of time in what seems to be described very well by sheol). Why then does Jesus in the bible compare it with Hinnon?

I was also interested when I read
Quote: “For the living know that they die, and the dead know not anything, and there is no more to them a reward, for their remembrance hath been forgotten”
(Ecclesiastes 9:5, Young’s Literal Translation). I am a bit confused- is this saying there is no afterlife at all, or am I misreading?

In 2 Thessalonians chapter 1, describing the second coming of Christ, it is written that Jesus will take vengeance on those who do not know God, and they “shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power” (Th. 7-9). Does this simply mean that the wicked are just... destroyed, and never to resurrected? I find it interesting that “everlasting” is included, since that implies that it’s not simply instantaneous, and that the punishment lasts forever. Hell is, in this case I suppose, simply being separated from god forever. However, I’m not too sure how well this matches up with the idea that there are degrees of punishment. I’m talking about how knowingly doing wicked things earns you harder punishment than doing wickedness without knowing you are not supposed to (Luke: 47-48). There are no degrees of separation from God (one would think?) so they don’t mesh.

Whether or not it’s in eternal torment, it would seem that there at least some promise in the bible of fiery punishment, maybe on the day of judgement, but regardless I don’t think that “sinners” are simply destroyed and done with.

Most of my quotes here are from King James version, ‘cus that’s the one I’ve got.

... Take it away Daystar.
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#3
RE: What The Bible Really Teaches About Hell
(November 30, 2008 at 4:46 am)lukec Wrote: Good post, Daystar- well-developed and researched. I think you might do with an intro paragraph and a conclusion to summarize though, since this is basically an essay.

Thatnks, lukec, I appreciate that.

(November 30, 2008 at 4:46 am)lukec Wrote: I really like your point about the Valley of Hinnon, and how it was just a symbol for the people of that time that really captures the idea of a truly horrible place. But that leaves me wondering, if the original biblical word was simply “sheol,” and meaning more or less a gathering place for the dead (forgive me for the comparison, but I cannot help remembering in the book “The Amber Spyglass” they spend a good amount of time in what seems to be described very well by sheol). Why then does Jesus in the bible compare it with Hinnon?

Jesus didn't really compare sheohl with Hinnom. Hinnom, that is the Greek Gehenna, was a place that symbolized spiritual destruction whereas sheol was just the common grave. Gehenna was the literal place where they threw the corpses of animals and criminals who were thought not to deserve resurrection so they didn't deserve a proper burial.

(November 30, 2008 at 4:46 am)lukec Wrote: I was also interested when I read
Quote: “For the living know that they die, and the dead know not anything, and there is no more to them a reward, for their remembrance hath been forgotten”
(Ecclesiastes 9:5, Young’s Literal Translation). I am a bit confused- is this saying there is no afterlife at all, or am I misreading?

The only afterlife is a resurrection to a possible everlasting life on earth and for a few spiritual resurrection to heaven. Earth was created for man and Heaven was created for God so the meek will inherit the earth and live forever upon it, but the few that go to heaven, 144, 000 (Revelation 7:4; 14:1-5) were selected to judge as princes with Jesus because in all fairness Jehovah and even Jesus doesn't really have an idea of what it is like to live with sin.

(November 30, 2008 at 4:46 am)lukec Wrote: In 2 Thessalonians chapter 1, describing the second coming of Christ, it is written that Jesus will take vengeance on those who do not know God, and they “shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power” (Th. 7-9). Does this simply mean that the wicked are just... destroyed, and never to resurrected? I find it interesting that “everlasting” is included, since that implies that it’s not simply instantaneous, and that the punishment lasts forever. Hell is, in this case I suppose, simply being separated from god forever.

Quote:2 Thessalonians 1:7-9 - but, to you who suffer tribulation, relief along with us at the revelation of the Lord Jesus from heaven with his powerful angels in a flaming fire, as he brings vengeance upon those who do not know God and those who do not obey the good news about our Lord Jesus. These very ones will undergo the judicial punishment of everlasting destruction from before the Lord and from the glory of his strength

It is important to point out that there is often an importance or unspecified signifigance to 'knowing' or 'to know' something or someone in the Bible. Depending upon the context it could have an extremely wide range of variation in meaning. For example the people of Soddom wanted to 'know' the angels sexually, but Adam and Eve wanted to the fruit of the tree of 'knowledge' of what was good and bad which meant they wanted to judge for themselves what was good and bad. The ones that do not know God here are not simply those that are not aware of him. (compare Hosea 4:1 / John 7:28) Nor even that they are unrighteous, for there is a resurrection of the Righteous and the Unrightous. (Acts 24:15)

What this means is that there are millions of people who have not, for one reason or another, had the opportunity to judge God, to get to know if they want to be a part of his creation, of everlasting life. Judgement day is thought by many to be a terrible period of punishment, but it isn't. It isn't a pronouncement it is a judgement for those who have not had the opportunity to get to know God.

The wicked are those who don't coose to know God as having the right as creator to protect and guide us. Put simply it is a return to Paradise as it was meant to be. They reject him as Adam and Eve did, choosing to judge what is good and bad over him. They are destroyed forever. Fire is symbolic in the Bible as something being destroyed without the possibility of being remade.

So in that sense it is a separation from God, but hell itself isn't. God is in hell in a sense watching and waiting to resurrect the dead.

(November 30, 2008 at 4:46 am)lukec Wrote: However, I’m not too sure how well this matches up with the idea that there are degrees of punishment. I’m talking about how knowingly doing wicked things earns you harder punishment than doing wickedness without knowing you are not supposed to (Luke: 47-48). There are no degrees of separation from God (one would think?) so they don’t mesh.

There are no degrees of punishment. I think that comes from Dante's Divine Comedy. Degrees of separation from God? You are either willing to live peacefully in his paradise earth or you are not. The destruction of death, sin, Satan, religion, governments, etc. comes from an unwillingness to be a part of it and if it were not for God we would undoubtedly destroy ourselves. God can't allow that. It is similar to the Nephilim in the days of Noah and the Flood.

(November 30, 2008 at 4:46 am)lukec Wrote: Whether or not it’s in eternal torment, it would seem that there at least some promise in the bible of fiery punishment, maybe on the day of judgement, but regardless I don’t think that “sinners” are simply destroyed and done with.

We are all sinners, and I talked about judgement and the symbolic meaning of fire in the Bible above. Interestingly torment in the Greek verb basanizo is translated torment but can actually also be translated as jailers. The translation is interchangable. At Matthew 18:34 it is translated as jailers. So there is no literal fiery punishment - only a death that should be considered as torment due to what is the possible alternative.
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#4
RE: What The Bible Really Teaches About Hell
(November 30, 2008 at 11:03 am)Daystar Wrote: We are all sinners ...

I'm not.

Kyu
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#5
RE: What The Bible Really Teaches About Hell
If we are all sinners then we were deliberately made that way and cannot accept any responsibility ourselves.

Gene Roddenberry said it best with..

"We must question the story logic of having an all-knowing all-powerful God, who creates faulty Humans, and then blames them for his own mistakes."
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#6
RE: What The Bible Really Teaches About Hell
Of course the argument against that is that we rebelled against God, it was our choice. The problem with this is that punishment for this rebellion is ridiculous, seeing as God gave us our freedom in the first place. If you give someone something and they use it against you, then the fault is at least joint, if not entirely yours.
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#7
RE: What The Bible Really Teaches About Hell
And the argument against that is that God knew exactly what would happen before he created anything but he still went ahead with his creation anyway. Therefore, knowing what the outcome would be he must hold sole responsibility.

After all, you wouldn't test a new alarm system in a busy airport if you knew that the result would be a stampede with hundreds of people crushed to death would you. And if you did you couldn't then blame people for panicking!
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#8
RE: What The Bible Really Teaches About Hell
(December 1, 2008 at 6:04 am)Kyuuketsuki Wrote:
(November 30, 2008 at 11:03 am)Daystar Wrote: We are all sinners ...

I'm not.

Kyu

The Hebrew word for sin is chattath and the Greek is hamartia, in verb form (chatta and hamartano) it means to miss, in the sense of missing a goal, way or mark. At Judges 20:16 chatta is used with a negative to describe the Benjamites who were 'slingers of stones to a hairbreadth and would not miss.' Greek writers often used hamartano referring to spearmen missing his target.

So sin means to miss the mark set by someone. If you are late for work you have sinned against your boss. If you miss your son's birthday party you have sinned against your son.

Given the definition of what sin is and what it means to sin, how is it that you are not a sinner?
(December 1, 2008 at 7:11 am)Darwinian Wrote: If we are all sinners then we were deliberately made that way and cannot accept any responsibility ourselves.

Gene Roddenberry said it best with..

"We must question the story logic of having an all-knowing all-powerful God, who creates faulty Humans, and then blames them for his own mistakes."

We were not deliberately made that way. To sin means to miss the mark, in this case set by God. Adam decided that he was the one to judge what is right and wrong rather than the creator and that not only was a stupid move but it also produced results other than death.

That rejection of God and his protection and guidence. Roddenberry's viewpoint was distorted by religious nonsense.
(December 1, 2008 at 7:37 am)Tiberius Wrote: Of course the argument against that is that we rebelled against God, it was our choice. The problem with this is that punishment for this rebellion is ridiculous, seeing as God gave us our freedom in the first place. If you give someone something and they use it against you, then the fault is at least joint, if not entirely yours.

There is more to it than that we rebelled and were punished. It was a simple thing. They had one regulation and they screwed it up.

Think about this. Adam was in charge, he was given charge over all the earth, animals and his wife. The angel later known as Satan was put in charge of protecting the Garden. Paradise was a small portion of Earth that God had prepared for them, and outside of that small area the earth was knew and uninhabitable.

The angel later known as Satan deceived Eve, but since Adam had been put in charge there is the possibility that he could have stopped it. Adam, on the other hand - who, I remind you had been put in charge of Earth under the angel's protection - was not deceived. He knew better and could have stopped it.

He chose to reject God and rise above him in judging what was right and what was wrong.

Now a very important thing to consider is that all of the spirit creatures in heaven are watching this all unfold. They are thinking is it possible that man knows better than God what is right or wrong? Would it not be fair to give them the opportunity to do so?

A great deal of what the Bible skeptic perceives as being evil punishment from God is actually more a result of them pushing him out of the picture. Adam chose - that is what the Bible says whether you see the Bible as fable or truth. If, though, it is truth, you continue to do the same as Adam before you, so sin is not so hard to see and believe once you know what it is.
(December 1, 2008 at 9:18 am)Darwinian Wrote: And the argument against that is that God knew exactly what would happen before he created anything but he still went ahead with his creation anyway. Therefore, knowing what the outcome would be he must hold sole responsibility.

After all, you wouldn't test a new alarm system in a busy airport if you knew that the result would be a stampede with hundreds of people crushed to death would you. And if you did you couldn't then blame people for panicking!

That is the thing. There is no scriptural support that God knew what would happen before he created anything, and in fact, to me it doesn't even make sense to think that the did.
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#9
RE: What The Bible Really Teaches About Hell
Quote:That is the thing. There is no scriptural support that God knew what would happen before he created anything, and in fact, to me it doesn't even make sense to think that the did.

Then he can't be omniscient or omnipotent. An omniscient god would know everything and an omnipotent god would be able to know everything.

This, of course makes far more sense but it's a long way from the god of the bible that we all hear about.
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#10
RE: What The Bible Really Teaches About Hell
(December 1, 2008 at 11:02 am)Daystar Wrote:
(December 1, 2008 at 6:04 am)Kyuuketsuki Wrote:
(November 30, 2008 at 11:03 am)Daystar Wrote: We are all sinners ...
I'm not.

The Hebrew word for sin is chattath and the Greek is hamartia, in verb form (chatta and hamartano) it means to miss, in the sense of missing a goal, way or mark. At Judges 20:16 chatta is used with a negative to describe the Benjamites who were 'slingers of stones to a hairbreadth and would not miss.' Greek writers often used hamartano referring to spearmen missing his target.

So sin means to miss the mark set by someone. If you are late for work you have sinned against your boss. If you miss your son's birthday party you have sinned against your son.

Given the definition of what sin is and what it means to sin, how is it that you are not a sinner?

I haven't missed anything ... as such I cannot be a sinner.

Kyu
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